IEEE Technology Policy and Ethics Articles Published in 2018



Smart Town Traffic Management System Using LoRa and Machine Learning Mechanism

By Seung Byum Seo and Dhananjay Singh

In this article we propose a customized Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) architecture and machine learning mechanism adaptable to a smart town’s traffic management system. LoRa, also known as Long Range Wide Area Network, is a new technology used for LPWAN [1]. This proposal focuses on a smart town, a smaller concept than a smart city, in order to detour the challenges for simulation and provide high-quality service to a small community. By integrating concepts from wireless communication, traffic theory, and machine learning, the proposed cloud platform provides a powerful traffic management model for the smart town. The proposed customized LoRa architecture is not only suitable for manageability, but also for scalability. Our goal is to develop a real-time testbed solution in order to conduct performance analysis and verification of the competency of our model in a real-world scenario.

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Deep Learning: Is it the Main Challenge Behind Autonomous Vehicles Deployment?

By Fatima Hussain and Rasheed Hussain

There has been a growing interest in the field of intelligent transportation systems (ITSs) to improve road safety [1] and traffic management issues. ITS is realized through social interaction among vehicles which offers plethora of applications and services ranging from safety to information and entertainment (collectively referred to as infotainment). These applications on one hand guarantee safe driving, and on the other hand add value to our driving experience. Significant efforts have been made in the last decade by researchers from both academia and industry to realize the ITS through different communication paradigms such as vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communications. ITS uses existing communication technologies such as Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC), WiFi, 4G/LTE, Bluetooth, WiMax, and so on.

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Consumers Drive Technological Change Within Energy System Transitions

By Veryan Hann

Energy systems in OECD countries are transitioning towards decentralization. This shift is due to energy policy and climate policy pressures, changing consumer preferences, and drive to decentralized generation and storage, and this transformation is also driven by technological advances such as the ‘internet of energy’ of which includes smart grids. This article offers an insight into this socio-technical change from a sociological perspective; the challenges for policy makers, and the challenges for energy networks, through the lens of an Australian smart grid pilot.

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Don’t Take the Bait! Protect Yourself from the Latest Email Scams

By Sabrina Davis and Junaid Chaudhry

Cyber security– it is commonly thought of as a world of virtual threats made by seemingly virtual people. But cyber security is instituted to in fact, help us secure our computer’s software. Cyber is compelled by human emotion and thought, as underneath every falsified email or server attack, there is a person hitting the “go” button to send it off. This means any threat can be stopped by the same human knowledge that is able to launch it. The link between cyber and psychology is fundamental in understanding threats such as phishing, spear phishing, and whaling.

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The Role of Education and Information Technology for a Fair and Sustainable Development

By Marco Pellegrini and Massimo Mozzon

The world’s population peaked to 7.6 billion by mid-2017, approximately adding a billion inhabitants since 2005. The Population Division at the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) United Nations (UN), predicts that global population will increase by 1.1% each year reaching 11.2 billion by 2100 [1]. Sixty per cent of the world’s people live in Asia and 17% in Africa, while the remaining 23% live across Europe, America and Oceania. China and India are the two most populous countries of the world comprising 19% and 18% of global total, respectively. Based on UN/DESA projected growth of global population until 2100, it is estimated that Asia and Africa will still remain the two most populous regions of the world, comprising about 83% of global population. Therefore, the majority population growth is expected to take place in developing and least developed countries (LDCs) [2].

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Semantic Web in the Age of Big Data: A Perspective

Will we drown in a data tsunami or enter a knowledge utopia?

By: Syed Ahmad Chan Bukhari, Ali Kashif Bashir, and Khalid Mahmood Malik

We are awash with “Big Data” to this very day because of the technological advancements made during the past decade. The notion of Big Data1 refers to the datasets which are gigantic in size to be processed by conventional databases and management techniques (volume), are extremely diverse so that no single data model can capture all elements of the data (variety) and are produced or gathered at an unprecedented scale (velocity)1. Because of this sheer volume, variety, and velocity of big data, enterprises are facing data heterogeneity, diversity and complexity challenges. However, this big data era came with big opportunities by resolving the associated challenges, so it could transform our traditional way of decision-making. Enterprises with the technical expertise of managing big data are now replacing their usual guesswork and laborious legacy data modeling based decision making processes with facts derived from big data2.

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Ethical Issues in Secondary Use of Personal Health Information

By: Thomas Gallagher, Kudakwashe Dube, and Scott McLachlan

The accessibility of personal health information (PHI) will increase on the Internet of the future to provide timely support for both primary and secondary uses. Although PHI for secondary uses is generally anonymized, its widespread distribution on the Internet raises ethical concerns. The PHI should remain an individual’s most closely guarded asset1, 2. While other forms of personal data represent what the person does, owns, or knows, PHI represents what the person is. PHI describes the biological attributes of the human being, often containing longitudinal records of wellness, illness, test results, and treatments3. These characteristics amplify the seriousness and un-reversible consequences that uniquely differentiate breaches or disclosures of PHI data from other forms of data breach. In conducting risk assessment analysis, the result of even a single PHI data breach can be catastrophic. As it is impossible to place a price on our health, it is similarly impossible to place a price on PHI. Risk assessments calculations4 involving annual loss expectancy, single loss expectancy, or annualized rate of occurrence are irrelevant when PHI has been breached. In light of this, the questions of: (1) granting the patient the right to consent, that is, opt-in or out, of the de-identification and subsequent secondary use of their PHI; and (2) finding synthetic alternatives to de-identified PHI for certain type of secondary uses to protect patient privacy, urgently need to be addressed.

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The Slow Tech Journey: An approach to teaching corporate social responsibility – Part II, Continued.

By Rebecca Lee Hammons, Norberto Patrignani, and Diane Whitehouse

In the last newsletter, the authors provided additional insight into the importance of the Slow Tech Journey and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and shared a case study of Apple’s CSR policies and practices based on a review of a variety of artifacts gleaned from several sources. This newsletter provides two final, internationally-based case studies for the reader’s consideration and recommendations for the integration of such case study analysis into the Information and Communication Sciences (ICT) curriculum.

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Future Directions in Privacy-Enhancing Video Surveillance

By Ankur Chattopadhyay and Donxay Rasavong

As today’s video surveillance technology continues to get smarter exponentially, the debate on privacy versus security keeps on getting strong momentum with new questions coming up [6, 7]. The terrorist attacks on September 11th, 2001 gave the United States Government the power to blur the line between privacy and security without any major pushback by the American public. In today’s digital era of social media platforms and smartphones, as surveillance mechanisms keep on evolving with technological advances in computer vision, person re-identification (ReID) [2, 6] has emerged as a new threat to privacy in video surveillance. In a way, it challenges the Fourth Amendment in the American Constitution.

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The Slow Tech Journey: An Approach to Teaching Corporate Social Responsibility  – Part 2

By Rebecca Lee Hammons, Norberto Patrignani, and Diane Whitehouse

In Part 1 of this article published in the November 2017 issue of the Future Directions Newsletter, the authors provided a background to corporate social responsibility (CSR) and ethics in the information, communications and technology (ICT) industry along with a description of the Slow Tech journey and the importance of educating students in good, clean and fair ICT practices. Part II of this article provides more insight into the importance of this type of education in relation to people and the planet. It also offers some examples of case studies that can be used as a method for teaching Slow Tech principles and engaging students in critical thinking.

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