What is Nanopackaging:
Nanopackaging is defined as the packaging of devices and systems with nanoscale materials and processes for improved performance, miniaturization, functionality, reliability and cost. Nanopackaging seeks to bridge the gap between ICs, which are at the nanoscale, and the rest of the system components that are typically at milliscale or microscale.
Nanopackaging plays a key role in all the major aspects of system integration: improved functional density, higher power densities and power efficiency, higher bandwidth with lower power, improved thermal management, and better reliability. These are illustrated in Fig. 1 with two examples of systems, one as a 3D computing and communication module and the other as a flexible electronics module for wearables and IoT. The role of nanopackaging is briefly described in the five categories below.
Fig. 1: Applications of nanopackaging in 3D modules and flex packaging (OS/CDM: On-Site Code Division Multiplexing)
The mission of the Nano Committee is to be the focal point for dissemination of scientific and applications advances of nanotechnology for electronic packaging applications:
- Promote Nanopackaging technologies through:
- IEEE EPS TC website, webinars, IEEE NANO magazine and other special issues and handbooks
- Organize nanopackaging technical sessions in IEEE NANO conferences:
- IEEE NANO, IEEE NMDC that are held in US, Europe and Asia;
- Promoting the commercialization of nanopackaging technologies by bridging industry and academia through webinars, workshops etc.
To these ends, it will create and nurture the application of nanotechnologies to electronics packaging in IEEE EPS and NTC communities.
Nanopackaging in Heterogeneous Integration Roadmap:
EPS HIR highlights the role of nanomaterials and nanopackaging. Readers are referred to:
b)Medical, Health and Wearables:
Applications of Nanopackaging
Power Supply and Conversion: Nanostructured electrodes improve the volumetric power densities because of their superior properties, higher surface area, conformal ultra-thin dielectrics or electrolytes, and counter electrodes and thus, lead to thinner power components. These can be embedded into the package or on wafers, instead of mounting them as discrete surface-assembled bulky components. Because of their proximity to the actives, they also lower the effective inductance parasitics. nanomaterials This leads to improved power distribution and granularity, with improved efficiency. Nanopackaging enables power sources, energy harvesting and power conversion using batteries, supercapacitors, generators, capacitors and inductors.
Thermal Management: Nanoscale materials and interfaces improve the heat rejection and spreading from the chip to the heatpipe or coldplates, from where the heat is rejected to the ambience. Two-dimensional nanomaterials that are made of graphene and boron nitride can improve the film thermal conductivity, while also allowing better phonon transfer across the interfaces, when fabricated as thin conducting or insulating films. They can also play a strong role in the design and fabrication of the heatpipes and coldplates themselves. A recent example is 2D nanocomposites of graphene and BN in polymers for thin high- thermal conductivity insulating films that are used in thermal management of power modules in applications such as automotive drivetrain.
Functional Components: Nanopackaging also encompasses packaging of nanoscale devices using both top-down nanostructuring processes and bottom-up self-assembly processes. As one such example, ferromagnetic nanowires are emerging as suitable candidates for integrated nonreciprocal components for mm wave communication functions. Nanomaterials can provide unique RF, sensing and digital packaging functions.
Flexible Electronics: These are emerging to address the large market need for IoT (Internet of Things), structural monitoring, healthcare and monitoring through wearable and implantable electronics. Nanomaterials play a role in low-temperature deposition of conductors with printed or additive manufacturing approaches. Nanocomposites can be engineered to enable soft or deformable interconnections that can resist bending and deformation, scalability to fine pitch, and provide options for reworkability or remateability for device assembly and flex-to-flex connectors.
Reliability: Nanoscale materials can be engineered to attain an unusual and beneficial combination of properties. Nanosilver and nanocopper die-attach materials can lower thermal resistance with high reliability for large power dies, but also serve as interconnect materials for handling higher current densities without any electromigration or thermomechanical reliability failures. Another primary class of nanopackaging materials are nanocomposite encapsulants and underfills with lower CTE, high thermal conductivity, and high Tg with lower filler content for applications in 3D IC stacks and packages. Nanoscale barriers can be deposited as ultra-thin conformal coatings and can replace bulky ceramic cases and hermetic cans in flexible electronics and bioelectronics implants.